This book presents fundamental requirements, electrical specification, and parameter tradeoffs of wearable EEG acquisition circuits, especially those compatible with dry electrodes for user-friendly recordings. The authors introduce active electrode, the most promising solution for dry electrodes-based EEG measurement. This architectural concept has been combined with various, innovative circuit design techniques to illustrate structured IC design methodologies for high performance EEG recording. This book also gives examples on the design, implementation and evaluation of three generations of active electrode ICs.
This book provides an introduction to Swarm Robotics, which is the application of methods from swarm intelligence to robotics. It goes on to present methods that allow readers to understand how to design large-scale robot systems by going through many example scenarios on topics such as aggregation, coordinated motion (flocking), task allocation, self-assembly, collective construction, and environmental monitoring. The author explains the methodology behind building multiple, simple robots and how the complexity emerges from the multiple interactions between these robots such that they are able to solve difficult tasks. The book can be used as a short textbook for specialized courses or as an introduction to Swarm Robotics for graduate students, researchers, and professionals who want a concise introduction to the field.
This book presents and develops several important concepts of speech enhancement in a simple but rigorous way. Many of the ideas are new; not only do they shed light on this old problem but they also offer valuable tips on how to improve on some well-known conventional approaches. The book unifies all aspects of speech enhancement, from single channel, multichannel, beamforming, time domain, frequency domain and time–frequency domain, to binaural in a clear and flexible framework. It starts with an exhaustive discussion on the fundamental best (linear and nonlinear) estimators, showing how they are connected to various important measures such as the coefficient of determination, the correlation coefficient, the conditional correlation coefficient, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). It then goes on to show how to exploit these measures in order to derive all kinds of noise reduction algorithms that can offer an accurate and versatile compromise between noise reduction and speech distortion.
This book introduces a new approach to model and predict substrate parasitic failures in integrated circuits with standard circuit design tools.
The injection of majority and minority carriers in the substrate is a recurring problem in smart power ICs containing high voltage, high current switching devices besides sensitive control, protection and signal processing circuits.
The injection of parasitic charges leads to the activation of substrate bipolar transistors. This book explores how these events can be evaluated for a wide range of circuit topologies. To this purpose, new generalized devices implemented in Verilog-A are used to model the substrate with standard circuit simulators. This approach was able to predict for the first time the activation of a latch-up in real circuits through post-layout SPICE simulation analysis.
- Discusses substrate modeling and circuit-level simulation of parasitic bipolar device coupling effects in integrated circuits;
- Includes circuit back-annotation of the parasitic lateral n-p-n and vertical p-n-p bipolar transistors in the substrate;
- Uses Spice for simulation and characterization of parasitic bipolar transistors, latch-up of the parasitic p-n-p-n structure, and electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection devices;
- Offers design guidelines to reduce couplings by adding specific protections.
This book consolidates some of the most promising advanced smart grid functionalities and provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for their implementation/evaluation using DIgSILENT Power Factory.
It includes specific aspects of modeling, simulation and analysis, for example wide-area monitoring, visualization and control, dynamic capability rating, real-time load measurement and management, interfaces and co-simulation for modeling and simulation of hybrid systems. It also presents key advanced features of modeling and automation of calculations using PowerFactory, such as the use of domain-specific (DSL) and DIgSILENT Programming (DPL) languages, and utilizes a variety of methodologies including theoretical explanations, practical examples and guidelines.
Providing a concise compilation of significant outcomes by experienced users and developers of this program, it is a valuable resource for postgraduate students and engineers working in power-system operation and planning.
This book presents techniques necessary to predict cardiac arrhythmias, long before they occur, based on minimal ECG data. The authors describe the key information needed for automated ECG signal processing, including ECG signal pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. The adaptive and novel ECG processing techniques introduced in this book are highly effective and suitable for real-time implementation on ASICs.
This book constitutes the proceedings of the Second International Conference on Cloud, Networking for IoT Systems, CN4IoT 2017, and the Second EAI International Conference on ICT Infrastructures and Services for Smart Cities, IISSC 2017, held in Brindisi, Italy, in April 2017.
The 26 full papers of both conferences were selected from 39 submissions. CN4IoT presents research activities on the uniform management and operation related to software defined infrastructures, in particular by analyzing limits or advantages in solutions for Cloud Networking and IoT. IISSC papers focus on ICT infrastructures (technologies, models, frameworks) and services in cities and smart communities.
This book describes the common ground between electricity markets (EMs) and software agents (or artificial intelligence generally). It presents an up-to-date introduction to EMs and intelligent agents, and offers a comprehensive description of the research advances and key achievements related to existing and emerging market designs to reliably and efficiently manage the potential challenges of variable generation (VG). Most EMs are unique in their complex relationships between economics and the physics of energy, but were created without the notion that large penetrations of variable generation (VG) would be part of the supply mix. An advanced multi-agent approach simulates the behavior of power markets over time, particularly markets with large-scale penetrations of renewable resources. It is intended as a reference book for researchers, academics and industry practitioners, but given the scope of the chapters and the highly accessible style, the book also provides a coherent foundation for several different graduate courses.
The 36 papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected from a total of 64 submissions. They are from the following workshops: BPI 2016 – 12th International Workshop on Business Process Intelligence; BPMO 2016 – 1st Workshop on Workshop on Business Process Management and Ontologies; BPMS2 2016 – 9th Workshop on Social and Human Aspects of Business Process Management; DeMiMoP 2016 – 4th International Workshop on Decision Mining & Modeling for Business Processes; IWPE 2016 – 2nd International Workshop on Process Engineering; PQ 2016 – 1st International Workshop on Process Querying; ReMa 2016 – 1st Workshop on Resource Management in Business Processes; PRAISE 2016 – 1st International Workshop on Runtime Analysis of Process-Aware Information Systems; SABPM 2016 – 1st International Workshop on Sustainability-Aware Business Process Management; TAProViz 2016 – 5th International Workshop on Theory and Application of Visualizations and Human-centric Aspects in Processes.
This book provides readers with an in-depth discussion of circuit simulation, combining basic electrical engineering circuit theory with Python programming. It fills an information gap by describing the development of Python Power Electronics, an open-source software for simulating circuits, and demonstrating its use in a sample circuit. Unlike typical books on circuit theory that describe how circuits can be solved mathematically, followed by examples of simulating circuits using specific, commercial software, this book has a different approach and focus. The author begins by describing every aspect of the open-source software, in the context of non-linear power electronic circuits, as a foundation for aspiring or practicing engineers to embark on further development of open source software for different purposes. By demonstrating explicitly the operation of the software through algorithms, this book brings together the fields of electrical engineering and software technology.
This brief studies the general problem of constructing digital chaotic systems in devices with finite precision from low-dimensional to high-dimensional settings, and establishes a general framework for composing them. The contributors demonstrate that the associated state networks of digital chaotic systems are strongly connected. They then further prove that digital chaotic systems satisfy Devaney’s definition of chaos on the domain of finite precision. The book presents Lyapunov exponents, as well as implementations to show the potential application of digital chaotic systems in the real world; the authors also discuss the basic advantages and practical benefits of this approach.
The authors explore the solutions to dynamic degradation (including short cycle length, decayed distribution and low linear complexity) by proposing novel modelling methods and hardware designs for two different one-dimensional chaotic systems, which satisfy Devaney’s definition of chaos. They then extend it to a higher-dimensional digital-domain chaotic system, which has been used in image-encryption technology. This ensures readers do not encounter large differences between actual and theoretical chaotic orbits through small errors.
Digital Chaotic Systems serves as an up-to-date reference on an important research topic for researchers and students in control science and engineering, computing, mathematics and other related fields of study.
This textbook is intended for engineering students taking courses in power electronics, renewable energy sources, smart grids or static power converters. It is also appropriate for students preparing a capstone project where they need to understand, model, supply, control and specify the grid side power converters. The main goal of the book is developing in students the skills that are required to design, control and use static power converters that serve as an interface between the ac grid and renewable power sources. The same skills can be used to design, control and use the static power converters used within the micro-grids and nano-grids, as the converters that provide the interface between such grids and the external grid. The author’s approach starts with basic functionality and the role of grid connected power converters in their typical applications, and their static and dynamic characteristics. Particular effort is dedicated to developing simple, concise, intuitive and easy-to-use mathematical models that summarize the essence of the grid side converter dynamics. Mathematics is reduced to a necessary minimum, solved examples are used extensively to introduce new concepts, and exercises are used to test mastery of new skills.
This book provides the first comprehensive overview of the fascinating topic of audio source separation based on non-negative matrix factorization, deep neural networks, and sparse component analysis.
The first section of the book covers single channel source separation based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). After an introduction to the technique, two further chapters describe separation of known sources using non-negative spectrogram factorization, and temporal NMF models. In section two, NMF methods are extended to multi-channel source separation. Section three introduces deep neural network (DNN) techniques, with chapters on multichannel and single channel separation, and a further chapter on DNN based mask estimation for monaural speech separation. In section four, sparse component analysis (SCA) is discussed, with chapters on source separation using audio directional statistics modelling, multi-microphone MMSE-based techniques and diffusion map methods.
The book brings together leading researchers to provide tutorial-like and in-depth treatments on major audio source separation topics, with the objective of becoming the definitive source for a comprehensive, authoritative, and accessible treatment. This book is written for graduate students and researchers who are interested in audio source separation techniques based on NMF, DNN and SCA.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 32nd International Conference, ISC High Performance 2017, held in Frankfurt, Germany, in June 2017.
The 22 revised full papers presented in this book were carefully reviewed and selected from 66 submissions. The papers cover the following topics: applications and algorithms; proxy applications; architecture and system optimization; and energy-aware computing.
This book provides a comprehensive discussion of UML/OCL methods and design flow, for automatic validation and verification of hardware and software systems. While the presented flow focuses on using satisfiability solvers, the authors also describe how these methods can be used for any other automatic reasoning engine. Additionally, the design flow described is applied to a broad variety of validation and verification tasks. The authors also cover briefly how non-functional properties such as timing constraints can be handled with the described flow.
Electrical Machines primarily covers the basic functionality and the role of electrical machines in their typical applications. The effort of applying coordinate transforms is justified by obtaining a more intuitive, concise and easy-to-use model.
In this textbook, mathematics is reduced to a necessary minimum, and priority is given to bringing up the system view and explaining the use and external characteristics of machines on their electrical and mechanical ports. Covering the most relevant concepts relating to machine size, torque and power, the author explains the losses and secondary effects, outlining cases and conditions in which some secondary phenomena are neglected.
While the goal of developing and using machine mathematical models, equivalent circuits and mechanical characteristics persists through the book, the focus is kept on physical insight of electromechanical conversion process. Details such as the slot shape and the disposition of permanent magnets and their effects on the machine parameters and performance are also covered.
This book discusses design techniques, layout details and measurements of several key analog building blocks that currently limit the performance of 5G and E-Band transceivers implemented in deep-scaled CMOS. The authors present recent developments in low-noise quadrature VCOs and tunable inductor-less frequency dividers. Moreover, the design of low-loss broadband transformer-based filters that realize inter-stage matching, power division/combining and impedance transformation is discussed in great detail. The design and measurements of a low-noise amplifier, a downconverter and a highly-linear power amplifier that leverage the proposed techniques are shown. All the prototypes were realized in advanced nanometer scaled CMOS technologies without RF thick to metal option.
This book presents cutting-edge work on real-time modelling and processing, a highly active research field in both the research and industrial domains. Going beyond conventional real-time systems, major efforts are required to develop accurate and computational efficient real-time modelling algorithms and design automation tools that reflect the technological advances in high-speed and ultra-low-power transceiver communication architectures based on nanoscale devices.
The book addresses basic and more advanced topics, such as I/O buffer circuits for ensuring reliable chip-to-chip communication, I/O buffer behavioural modelling, multiport empirical models for memory interfaces, compact behavioural modelling for memristive devices, and resource reservation modelling for distributed embedded systems. The respective chapters detail new research findings, new models, algorithms, implementations and simulations of the above-mentioned topics. As such, the book will help both graduate students and researchers understand the latest research into real-time modelling and processing.
This book provides a detailed description of fault tolerant design techniques for smart power drivers and their application in the design of automotive airbag ICs to ensure correct deployment. The book begins with an introduction to the nature of electrical loads in the car, then moves on to describe various current sensing circuits, featuring thermal simulations. It shows how simple design techniques can be applied to ensure appropriate functionality of the IC under any power up condition. It concludes by introducing diagnostic circuits and measurement results. This book is a useful reference for automotive IC designers and provides specifications and design guidelines not found in the current literature.
The book consists of peer-reviewed papers from the 9th symposium on Location Based Services (LBS) which is targeted to researchers, industry/market operators and students of different backgrounds (scientific, engineering and humanistic). As the research field is developing and changing fast, this book follows up on current trends and gives suggestions and guidance to further research. This book offers a common ground bringing together various disciplines and practice, knowledge, experiences, plans and ideas on how LBS can and could be improved and on how it will influence both science and society. The book comprises front-end publications organized into sections on:
spatial-temporal data acquisition, processing & analysis; positioning / indoor positioning; way-finding / navigation (indoor / outdoor) & smart mobile phone navigation; interactions, user studies and evaluations; innovative LBS systems & applications.
This book describes systematic design techniques for chaotic and hyperchaotic systems, the transition from one to the other, and their implementation in electronic circuits. It also discusses the collective phenomena manifested by these systems when connected by a physical coupling scheme. Readers will be introduced to collective behaviours, such as synchronization and oscillation suppression, and will learn how to implement nonlinear differential equations in electronic circuits.
Further, the book shows how the choice of nonlinearity can lead to chaos and hyperchaos, even in a first-order time-delayed system. The occurrence of these phenomena, together with the efficiency of the design techniques described, is presented with theoretical studies, numerical characterization and experimental demonstrations with the corresponding electronic circuits, helping readers grasp the design aspects of dynamical systems as a whole in electronic circuits. The authors then discuss the usefulness of an active all-pass filter as the delay element, supported by their own experimental observations, as well as theoretical and numerical results.
Including detailed analysis, as well as computations with suitable dedicated software packages, the book will be of interest to all academics and researchers who wish to expand their knowledge of the subtlety of nonlinear time-delayed systems. It also offers a valuable source of information for engineers, linking the design techniques of chaotic time-delayed systems with their collective phenomena.
This book discusses semiconductor properties, pn-junctions and the physical phenomena for understanding power devices in depth. Working principles of state-of-the-art power diodes, thyristors, MOSFETs and IGBTs are explained in detail, as well as key aspects of semiconductor device production technology. Special peculiarities of devices from the ascending semiconductor materials SiC and GaN are discussed.
This book presents significant improvements compared to its first edition. It includes chapters on packaging and reliability. The chapter on semiconductor technology is written in a more in-depth way by considering 2D- and high concentration effects. The chapter on IGBTs is extended by new technologies and evaluation of its potential. An extended theory of cosmic ray failures is presented. The range of certain important physical relationships, doubted in recent papers for use in device simulation, is cleared and substantiated in this second edition.
- Provides a reference on spectrum sharing, radio propagation and the deterministic analysis for the Co-Channel Interference (CCI) and Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI)
- Describes a methodology for an interference model in the co-channel and adjacent channel interference scenarios, which essentially depends on the interferer Adjacent Channel Leakage Ratio (ACLR) receiver, Adjacent Channel Selectivity (ACS) and the clutter loss effect
- Equips readers to solve one of the most complicated problems of frequency sharing between IMT-Advanced and FSS
- Introduces the concept of combined cycle nuclear plants, explaining how recent advances in gas turbines have made these systems increasingly desirable
- Promulgates modelling and analysis techniques to identify opportunities for increased thermodynamic efficiency and decreased water usage over current Light Water Reactor (LWR) systems
- Examines all power conversion aspects from the fluid exiting the reactor to the energy releases to the environment, with special focus on heat exchangers and turbo-machinery
- Provides examples of small projects to facilitate nuanced understanding of the theories and implementation of combined-cycle nuclear plants
This book is written as a very concise introduction for students taking a first course in communication systems. It provides the reader with fundamentals of digital communication systems and disseminates the essentials needed for the understanding of wire and wireless communication systems for Electrical Engineers. It covers important topics right from the beginning of the subject which communication engineers must understand. Example problems in each chapter will help them in understanding the materials well. The study of data networking will include multiple access, reliable packet transmission, routing and protocols of the internet. The concepts taught in class will be discussed in the context of aerospace communication systems: aircraft communications, satellite communications.
The book includes example problems in each chapter to help the reader in understanding the materials well.
This book discusses analysis, design and optimization techniques for streaming multiprocessor systems, while satisfying a given area, performance, and energy budget. The authors describe design flows for both application-specific and general purpose streaming systems. Coverage also includes the use of machine learning for thermal optimization at run-time, when an application is being executed. The design flow described in this book extends to thermal and energy optimization with multiple applications running sequentially and concurrently.
This Springer Brief focuses mainly on the basic theory and applications of massive MIMO in 5G networks. The significance of massive MIMO for 5G or future communications is first briefly discussed. Then, the basic theory of massive MIMO technology is comprehensively analyzed, i.e., a variety of 5G scenarios and their improvements are described when massive MIMO is taken into account. Art physical-layer techniques and various networking techniques for interference mitigation and resource scheduling are introduced as well. This SpringerBrief also examines the selected applications of massive MIMO in 5G networks, i.e., massive MIMO-aided millimeter communications and energy transfer. The physical-layer design, multiple access control (MAC) mechanism and networking techniques are discussed for millimeter-wave communications aided by massive MIMO technology. Then, massive MIMO is covered for hybrid information and energy transfer. A downlink precoder and a uplink pilot scheme is proposed for single cell networks, and both non-cooperative and cooperative energy transfer in multi-cell are presented.
Communication researchers in the area of MIMO technology, as well as researchers and practitioners working in millimeter communications and energy transfer seeking new research topics, and topic areas with communication system design, centralized and distributed algorithms, will find this brief useful as a reference. Advanced-level students studying communication engineering will also find this book useful as a secondary text.
This book provides wide knowledge about designing FPGA-based heterogeneous computing systems, using a high-level design environment based on OpenCL (Open Computing language), which is called OpenCL for FPGA. The OpenCL-based design methodology will be the key technology to exploit the potential of FPGAs in various applications such as low-power embedded applications and high-performance computing. By understanding the OpenCL-based design methodology, readers can design an entire FPGA-based computing system more easily compared to the conventional HDL-based design, because OpenCL for FPGA takes care of computation on a host, data transfer between a host and an FPGA, computation on an FPGA with a capable of accessing external DDR memories.
In the step-by-step way, readers can understand followings:
- how to set up the design environment
- how to write better codes systematically considering architectural constraints
- how to design practical applications